Within the different social processes that a person goes through, there are certain “inter-psychological processes” that involve the interaction of man in the small groups he belongs to; the level of exchange between them is so profound that it influences human development in a decisive way. For Vygotsky, education is efficient when it can go further than the natural development, and important teaching does not consist in developing technical aptitudes, but in performing those tasks that involve superior psychological functions, such as improving memory capacity and efficiency, or the ability to perceive and understand.
Regardless of the age of the child, Vygotsky considered that what they learn is more related to the development of the historical aspects, rather than the natural aspects of the human being. Therefore, he was very concerned about the cultural influence in education. Vygotsky defined the “zone of proximal development” as the difference between the real level of development of the child, as determined through the child’s ability to solve problems independently, and the highest possible level of development he can achieve , determined by the child’s ability to solve problems with the help of a teacher or together with his peers.
His anthropological perspective saw the child as a human being who needed to be taught to perform all the actions and activities required for life, actions that are obviously modified by experience and learning. The focus on human development proposed by Vygotsky is compared and enriched with points of view borrowed from Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget.